Update on eHIV Review (Vol. 4) Issues 7 and 8 (Clinical Perspective: New AEs from Newer ART)
eHIV Review guest author Dr. Cody Chastain, from the Division of Infectious Diseases at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, has provided the following update to eHIV Review Issues 7 and 8, incorporating new information presented at CROI 2019: Read more
The Greek philosopher Heraclitus is often quoted as stating, “The only thing that is constant is change.” As noted in the eHIV Review newsletter “Understanding AE in the New ART Regimens” (Volume 4, Issue 7) and the podcast “Clinical Perspective: New AEs from Newer ART” (Volume 4, Issue 8), data regarding adverse effects of newer antiretroviral therapy (ART) is constantly evolving. Since the release of this newsletter and podcast, important data from the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections 2019 have become available and add further depth and context to these publications.
The interim analysis of a birth defect surveillance study in Botswana previously reported a possible increase in the rate of neural tube defects among newborns exposed to dolutegravir at the time of conception.1 Multiple reports presented at CROI 2019 have not found consistent associations between neural tube defects and integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) use during pregnancy.2-4 These reports included studies from Uganda, HIV cohorts, and pregnancy registries. Ongoing monitoring will be essential to identify the potential impact of dolutegravir as well as other ART on pregnancy outcomes.
The nonvirologic impacts related to INSTI regimens were a popular topic of ongoing study at CROI 2019. In the recent eHIV Review, the NEAT 022 study revealed that cardiovascular risk was lowered by switching from a boosted protease inhibitor (PI)-based regimen to an INSTI-based regimen.5 At CROI 2019, lower cardiovascular disease risk was again noted with INSTI-based ART as compared to non-INSTI-based ART.6 On the other hand, the association between INSTI medications and weight gain were strengthened based on multiple reports among treatment-naïve, treatment-experienced, and other subpopulations (ie, women, blacks, and older adults).7-12 The potential impacts of this weight gain on cardiovascular health and other metabolic outcomes will undoubtedly be the subject of ongoing study.
Finally, neuropsychiatric adverse effects related to dolutegravir highlighted in the recent eHIV review were rigorously studied in one cohort presented at CROI 2019; it again highlighted the increase in somatic effects (including insomnia) when switching to a dolutegravir-based regimen, though it did not find significant contributions to severe depression symptoms.12-13
Heraclitus has also been credited with the following quote: “No man ever steps in the same river twice, for it's not the same river and he's not the same man.” As providers, we must be ready to assimilate new information and adapt practice accordingly. With new treatments come new opportunities and threats, and we must remain vigilant to best care for people living with HIV.
Many people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) can achieve near-normal life expectancy, suppressed viral load, and lower risk of HIV-related illnesses and comorbidities – IF they remain adherent to their ART regimen.
What barriers impede medication adherence in PLWHA? What interventions have been shown to overcome them? Which adherence improvement options are best targeted to which patient groups?
In this Issue, Dr. Joyce Jones from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Dr. Barbara Taylor from the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio analyze recent publications describing evidence-based ART adherence interventions and how they can be tailored to specific situations to increase effectiveness.
Assistant Professor of Medicine
Division of Infectious Diseases
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Associate Professor of Infectious Diseases
University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
San Antonio, TX
Associate Professor of Pediatrics and Adult Infectious Diseases
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases
Tufts Medical Center
Nurse Educator – Office Based Addiction Treatment, Training and Technical Assistance Program
Boston Medical Center
1.0 hour Physicians
1.0 contact hour Nurses
Launch date: April 25, 2019
Expiration date: April 24, 2021